On this page:
2.1 Binding Forms
let/ cc:
let/ ec:
2.2 Anonymous Functions
2.3 Loops
for/ list:
for/ hash:
for/ hasheq:
for/ hasheqv:
for/ vector:
for/ flvector:
for/ and:
for/ or:
for/ first:
for/ last:
for/ sum:
for/ product:
for*/ list:
for*/ hash:
for*/ hasheq:
for*/ hasheqv:
for*/ vector:
for*/ flvector:
for*/ and:
for*/ or:
for*/ first:
for*/ last:
for*/ sum:
for*/ product:
for/ lists:
for/ fold:
for*/ lists:
for*/ fold:
2.4 Definitions
2.5 Structure Definitions
define-struct/ exec:
2.6 Names for Types
2.7 Generating Predicates Automatically
2.8 Type Annotation and Instantiation
2.9 Require
require/ typed
2.10 Other Forms
Version: 5.2.1

2 Special Form Reference

Typed Racket provides a variety of special forms above and beyond those in Racket. They are used for annotating variables with types, creating new types, and annotating expressions.

2.1 Binding Forms

loop, f, a, and v are names, t is a type. e is an expression and body is a block.

(let: ([v : t e] ...) . body)
(let: loop : t0 ([v : t e] ...) . body)
Local bindings, like let, each with associated types. In the second form, t0 is the type of the result of loop (and thus the result of the entire expression as well as the final expression in body). Type annotations are optional.


> (: filter-even : (Listof Natural) (Listof Natural) -> (Listof Natural))
> (define (filter-even lst accum)
    (if (null? lst)
        (let: ([first : Natural (car lst)]
               [rest  : (Listof Natural) (cdr lst)])
              (if (even? first)
                  (filter-even rest (cons first accum))
                  (filter-even rest accum)))))
> (filter-even (list 1 2 3 4 5 6) null)

- : (Listof Natural)

'(6 4 2)


> (: filter-even-loop : (Listof Natural) -> (Listof Natural))
> (define (filter-even-loop lst)
    (let: loop : (Listof Natural)
          ([accum : (Listof Natural) null]
           [lst   : (Listof Natural) lst])
            [(null? lst)       accum]
            [(even? (car lst)) (loop (cons (car lst) accum) (cdr lst))]
            [else              (loop accum (cdr lst))])))
> (filter-even-loop (list 1 2 3 4))

- : (Listof Natural)

'(4 2)

(letrec: ([v : t e] ...) . body)
(let*: ([v : t e] ...) . body)
(let-values: ([([v : t] ...) e] ...) . body)
(letrec-values: ([([v : t] ...) e] ...) . body)
(let*-values: ([([v : t] ...) e] ...) . body)
Type-annotated versions of letrec, let*, let-values, letrec-values, and let*-values. As with let:, type annotations are optional.

(let/cc: v : t . body)
(let/ec: v : t . body)
Type-annotated versions of let/cc and let/ec.

2.2 Anonymous Functions

(lambda: formals . body)
formals = ([v : t] ...)
  | ([v : t] ...    v : t *)
  | ([v : t] ...    v : t ...)
A function of the formal arguments v, where each formal argument has the associated type. If a rest argument is present, then it has type (Listof t).
(λ: formals . body)
An alias for the same form using lambda:.
(plambda: (a ...) formals . body)
A polymorphic function, abstracted over the type variables a. The type variables a are bound in both the types of the formal, and in any type expressions in the body.
(case-lambda: [formals body] ...)
A function of multiple arities. Note that each formals must have a different arity.


> (define add-map
     [([lst : (Listof Integer)])
      (map add1 lst)]
     [([lst1 : (Listof Integer)]
       [lst2 : (Listof Integer)])
      (map + lst1 lst2)]))
For the type declaration of add-map look at case-lambda.

(pcase-lambda: (a ...) [formals body] ...)
A polymorphic function of multiple arities.
(opt-lambda: formals . body)
formals = ([v : t] ... [v : t default] ...)
  | ([v : t] ... [v : t default] ...    v : t *)
  | ([v : t] ... [v : t default] ...    v : t ...)
A function with optional arguments.
(popt-lambda: (a ...) formals . body)
A polymorphic function with optional arguments.

2.3 Loops

(for: type-ann-maybe (for-clause ...)
  expr ...+)
type-ann-maybe = 
  | : u
for:-clause = [id : t seq-expr]
  | [id seq-expr]
  | #:when guard
Like for, but each id having the associated type t. Since the return type is always Void, annotating the return type of a for form is optional. Unlike for, multi-valued seq-exprs are not supported. Type annotations in clauses are optional for all for: variants.

(for/list: type-ann-maybe (for:-clause ...) expr ...+)
(for/hash: type-ann-maybe (for:-clause ...) expr ...+)
(for/hasheq: type-ann-maybe (for:-clause ...) expr ...+)
(for/hasheqv: type-ann-maybe (for:-clause ...) expr ...+)
(for/vector: type-ann-maybe (for:-clause ...) expr ...+)
(for/flvector: type-ann-maybe (for:-clause ...) expr ...+)
(for/and: type-ann-maybe (for:-clause ...) expr ...+)
(for/or:   type-ann-maybe (for:-clause ...) expr ...+)
(for/first: type-ann-maybe (for:-clause ...) expr ...+)
(for/last: type-ann-maybe (for:-clause ...) expr ...+)
(for/sum: type-ann-maybe (for:-clause ...) expr ...+)
(for/product: type-ann-maybe (for:-clause ...) expr ...+)
(for*/list: type-ann-maybe (for:-clause ...) expr ...+)
(for*/hash: type-ann-maybe (for:-clause ...) expr ...+)
(for*/hasheq: type-ann-maybe (for:-clause ...) expr ...+)
(for*/hasheqv: type-ann-maybe (for:-clause ...) expr ...+)
(for*/vector: type-ann-maybe (for:-clause ...) expr ...+)
(for*/flvector: type-ann-maybe (for:-clause ...) expr ...+)
(for*/and: type-ann-maybe (for:-clause ...) expr ...+)
(for*/or:   type-ann-maybe (for:-clause ...) expr ...+)
(for*/first: type-ann-maybe (for:-clause ...) expr ...+)
(for*/last: type-ann-maybe (for:-clause ...) expr ...+)
(for*/sum: type-ann-maybe (for:-clause ...) expr ...+)
(for*/product: type-ann-maybe (for:-clause ...) expr ...+)
These behave like their non-annotated counterparts, with the exception that #:when clauses can only appear as the last for:-clause. The return value of the entire form must be of type u. For example, a for/list: form would be annotated with a Listof type. All annotations are optional.

(for/lists: type-ann-maybe ([id : t] ...)
  (for:-clause ...)
  expr ...+)
(for/fold:  type-ann-maybe ([id : t init-expr] ...)
  (for:-clause ...)
  expr ...+)
These behave like their non-annotated counterparts. Unlike the above, #:when clauses can be used freely with these.

(for*: void-ann-maybe (for-clause ...)
  expr ...+)
(for*/lists: type-ann-maybe ([id : t] ...)
  (for:-clause ...)
  expr ...+)
(for*/fold:  type-ann-maybe ([id : t init-expr] ...)
  (for:-clause ...)
  expr ...+)
These behave like their non-annotated counterparts.

These are identical to for and for*, but provide additional annotations to help the typechecker.

(do: : u ([id : t init-expr step-expr-maybe] ...)
         (stop?-expr finish-expr ...)
  expr ...+)
step-expr-maybe = 
  | step-expr
Like do, but each id having the associated type t, and the final body expr having the type u. Type annotations are optional.

2.4 Definitions

(define: v : t e)
(define: (f . formals) : t . body)
(define: (a ...) (f . formals) : t . body)
These forms define variables, with annotated types. The first form defines v with type t and value e. The second and third forms defines a function f with appropriate types. In most cases, use of : is preferred to use of define:.


> (define: foo : Integer 10)
> (define: (add [first : Integer]
                [rest  : Integer]) : Integer
    (+ first rest))
> (define: (A) (poly-app [func : (A A -> A)]
                         [first : A]
                         [rest  : A]) : A
    (func first rest))

2.5 Structure Definitions

(struct: maybe-type-vars name-spec ([f : t] ...) options ...)
maybe-type-vars = 
  | (v ...)
name-spec = name
  | name parent
options = #:transparent
  | #:mutable
Defines a structure with the name name, where the fields f have types t, similar to the behavior of struct. When parent is present, the structure is a substructure of parent. When maybe-type-vars is present, the structure is polymorphic in the type variables v.

Options provided have the same meaning as for the struct form.

(define-struct: maybe-type-vars name-spec ([f : t] ...) options ...)
maybe-type-vars = 
  | (v ...)
name-spec = name
  | (name parent)
options = #:transparent
  | #:mutable
Legacy version of struct:, corresponding to define-struct.

(define-struct/exec: name-spec ([f : t] ...) [e : proc-t])
name-spec = name
  | (name parent)
Like define-struct:, but defines a procedural structure. The procdure e is used as the value for prop:procedure, and must have type proc-t.

2.6 Names for Types

(define-type name t)
(define-type (name v ...) t)
The first form defines name as type, with the same meaning as t. The second form is equivalent to (define-type name (All (v ...) t)). Type names may refer to other types defined in the same module, but cycles among them are prohibited.


> (define-type IntStr (U Integer String))
> (define-type (ListofPairs A) (Listof (Pair A A)))

2.7 Generating Predicates Automatically

(define-predicate name t)
Defines name as a predicate for the type t. name has the type (Any -> Boolean : t). t may not contain function types.

2.8 Type Annotation and Instantiation

(: v t)
This declares that v has type t. The definition of v must appear after this declaration. This can be used anywhere a definition form may be used.


> (: var1 Integer)
> (: var2 String)

(provide: [v t] ...)
This declares that the vs have the types t, and also provides all of the vs.

#{v : t}
This declares that the variable v has type t. This is legal only for binding occurrences of v.

(ann e t)
Ensure that e has type t, or some subtype. The entire expression has type t. This is legal only in expression contexts.

#{e :: t}
A reader abbreviation for (ann e t).

(inst e t ...)
Instantiate the type of e with types t .... e must have a polymorphic type with the appropriate number of type variables. This is legal only in expression contexts.


> (foldl (inst cons Integer Integer) null (list 1 2 3 4))

- : (Listof Integer)

'(4 3 2 1)


> (: fold-list : (All (A) (Listof A) -> (Listof A)))
> (define (fold-list lst)
    (foldl (inst cons A A) null lst))
> (fold-list (list "1" "2" "3" "4"))

- : (Listof String)

'("4" "3" "2" "1")

#{e @ t ...}
A reader abbreviation for (inst e t ...).

2.9 Require

Here, m is a module spec, pred is an identifier naming a predicate, and r is an optionally-renamed identifier.

(require/typed m rt-clause ...)
rt-clause = [r t]
[struct name ([f : t] ...)
     struct-option ...]
[struct (name parent) ([f : t] ...)
     struct-option ...]
  | [opaque t pred]
struct-option = #:constructor-name constructor-id
  | #:extra-constructor-name constructor-id
This form requires identifiers from the module m, giving them the specified types.

The first case requires r, giving it type t.

The second and third cases require the struct with name name with fields f ..., where each field has type t. The third case allows a parent structure type to be specified. The parent type must already be a structure type known to Typed Racket, either built-in or via require/typed. The structure predicate has the appropriate Typed Racket filter type so that it may be used as a predicate in if expressions in Typed Racket.


> (module UNTYPED racket/base
    (define n 100)
    (struct IntTree
      (elem left right))
    (provide n (struct-out IntTree)))
> (module TYPED typed/racket
    (require/typed 'UNTYPED
                   [n Natural]
                   [struct IntTree
                     ([elem  : Integer]
                      [left  : IntTree]
                      [right : IntTree])]))

The fourth case defines a new type t. pred, imported from module m, is a predicate for this type. The type is defined as precisely those values to which pred produces #t. pred must have type (Any -> Boolean). Opaque types must be required lexically before they are used.

In all cases, the identifiers are protected with contracts which enforce the specified types. If this contract fails, the module m is blamed.

Some types, notably the types of predicates such as number?, cannot be converted to contracts and raise a static error when used in a require/typed form. Here is an example of using case-> in require/typed.

(require/typed racket/base
                  [String -> Exact-Nonnegative-Integer]
                  [String (Option Exact-Nonnegative-Integer)
                          (U Exact-Nonnegative-Integer Void)]
                  [String (Option Exact-Nonnegative-Integer) (-> Any)

file-or-directory-modify-seconds has some arguments which are optional, so we need to use case->.}

2.10 Other Forms

Identical to with-handlers, but provides additional annotations to help the typechecker.

(#%module-begin form ...)
Legal only in a module begin context. The #%module-begin form of typed/racket checks all the forms in the module, using the Typed Racket type checking rules. All provide forms are rewritten to insert contracts where appropriate. Otherwise, the #%module-begin form of typed/racket behaves like #%module-begin from racket.

Performs type checking of forms entered at the read-eval-print loop. The #%top-interaction form also prints the type of form after type checking.