The racket/sandbox module provides utilities for
creating “sandboxed” evaluators, which are configured in a
particular way and can have restricted resources (memory and time),
filesystem and network access, and much more. Sandboxed evaluators can be
configured through numerous parameters —
(make-evaluator language input-program ... [ #:requires requires #:allow-for-require allow-for-require #:allow-for-load allow-for-load #:allow-read allow-read]) → (any/c . -> . any)
(or/c module-path? (list/c 'special symbol?) (cons/c 'begin list?)) input-program : any/c
(listof (or/c module-path? path-string? (cons/c 'for-syntax (listof module-path?)))) = null allow-for-require : (listof (or/c module-path? path?)) = null allow-for-load : (listof path-string?) = null allow-read : (listof (or/c module-path? path-string?)) = null
(make-module-evaluator module-decl [ #:language lang #:allow-for-require allow-for-require #:allow-for-load allow-for-load #:allow-read allow-read]) → (any/c . -> . any) module-decl : (or/c syntax? pair? path? input-port? string? bytes?) lang : (or/c #f module-path?) = #f allow-for-require : (listof (or/c module-path? path?)) = null allow-for-load : (listof path-string?) = null allow-read : (listof (or/c module-path? path-string?)) = null
The returned evaluator operates in an isolated and limited environment. In particular, filesystem access is restricted, which may interfere with using modules from the filesystem. See below for information on the allow-for-require, allow-for-load, and allow-read arguments. When language is a module path or when requires is provided, the indicated modules are implicitly included in the allow-for-require list. (For backward compatibility, non-module-path? path strings are allowed in requires; they are implicitly converted to paths before addition to allow-for-require.)
Each input-program or module-decl argument provides a program in one of the following forms:
an input port used to read the program;
a string or a byte string holding the complete input;
a path that names a file holding the input; or
In the first three cases above, the program is read using sandbox-reader, with line-counting enabled for sensible error messages, and with 'program as the source (used for testing coverage). In the last case, the input is expected to be the complete program, and is converted to a syntax object (using 'program as the source), unless it already is a syntax object.
The returned evaluator function accepts additional expressions (each time it is called) in essentially the same form: a string or byte string holding a sequence of expressions, a path for a file holding expressions, an S-expression, or a syntax object. If the evaluator receives an eof value, it is terminated and raises errors thereafter. See also kill-evaluator, which terminates the evaluator without raising an exception.
For make-evaluator, multiple input-programs are effectively concatenated to form a single program. The way that the input-programs are evaluated depends on the language argument:
The language argument can be a module path (i.e., a datum that matches the grammar for module-path of require).
In this case, the input-programs are automatically wrapped in a module, and the resulting evaluator works within the resulting module’s namespace.
The language argument can be a list starting with 'special, which indicates a built-in language with special input configuration. The possible values are '(special r5rs) or a value indicating a teaching language: '(special beginner), '(special beginner-abbr), '(special intermediate), '(special intermediate-lambda), or '(special advanced).
In this case, the input-programs are automatically wrapped in a module, and the resulting evaluator works within the resulting module’s namespace. In addition, certain parameters (such as such as read-accept-infix-dot) are set to customize reading programs from strings and ports.
This option is provided mainly for older test systems. Using make-module-evaluator with input starting with #lang is generally better.
Finally, language can be a list whose first element is 'begin.
In this case, a new namespace is created using sandbox-namespace-specs, which by default creates a new namespace using sandbox-make-namespace (which, in turn, uses make-base-namespace or make-gui-namespace depending on sandbox-gui-available and gui-available?).
In the new namespace, language is evaluated as an expression to further initialize the namespace.
The requires list adds additional imports to the module or namespace for the input-programs, even in the case that require is not made available through the language.
The following examples illustrate the difference between an evaluator that puts the program in a module and one that merely initializes a top-level namespace:
> (define base-module-eval ; a module cannot have free variables... (make-evaluator 'racket/base '(define (f) later)))
program:1:0: later: unbound identifier in module
> (define base-module-eval (make-evaluator 'racket/base '(define (f) later) '(define later 5)))
> (base-module-eval '(f))
> (define base-top-eval ; non-module code can have free variables: (make-evaluator '(begin) '(define (f) later)))
> (base-top-eval '(+ 1 2))
> (base-top-eval '(define later 5))
> (base-top-eval '(f))
The make-module-evaluator function is essentially a
restriction of make-evaluator, where the program must be a
module, and all imports are part of the program. In some cases it is
useful to restrict the program to be a module using a specific module
in its language position —
(define base-module-eval2 ; equivalent to base-module-eval: (make-module-evaluator '(module m racket/base (define (f) later) (define later 5))))
The make-module-evaluator function can be convenient for testing module files: pass in a path value for the file name, and you get back an evaluator in the module’s context which you can use with your favorite test facility.
The evaluator works under the sandbox-security-guard, which restricts file system and network access.
The evaluator is contained in a memory-restricted environment, and each evaluation is wrapped in a call-with-limits (when memory accounting is available); see also sandbox-memory-limit, sandbox-eval-limits and set-eval-limits.
The allow-for-require and allow-for-load arguments adjust filesystem permissions to extend the set of files that are usable by the evaluator. The allow-for-require argument lists modules that can be required along with their imports (transitively). The allow-for-load argument lists files that can be loaded. (The precise permissions needed for require versus load can differ.) The allow-read argument is for backward compatibility, only; each module-path? element of allow-read is effectively moved to allow-for-require, while other elements are moved to all-for-load.
If the value of sandbox-propagate-exceptions is true (the default) when the sandbox is created, then exceptions (both syntax and run-time) are propagated as usual to the caller of the evaluation function (i.e., catch them with with-handlers). If the value of sandbox-propagate-exceptions is #f when the sandbox is created, then uncaught exceptions in a sandbox evaluation cause the error to be printed to the sandbox’s error port, and the caller of the evaluation receives #<void>.
Finally, the fact that a sandboxed evaluator accept syntax objects makes it usable as the value for current-eval, which means that you can easily start a sandboxed read-eval-print-loop. For example, here is a quick implementation of a networked REPL:
(define e (make-evaluator 'racket/base)) (let-values ([(i o) (tcp-accept (tcp-listen 9999))]) (parameterize ([current-input-port i] [current-output-port o] [current-error-port o] [current-eval e]) (read-eval-print-loop) (fprintf o "\nBye...\n") (close-output-port o)))
Note that in this code it is only the REPL interactions that are going
over the network connection; using I/O operations inside the REPL will
still use the usual sandbox parameters (defaulting to no I/O). In
addition, the code works only from an existing toplevel REPL —
(let-values ([(i o) (tcp-accept (tcp-listen 9999))]) (parameterize ([current-input-port i] [current-output-port o] [current-error-port o] [sandbox-input i] [sandbox-output o] [sandbox-error-output o] [current-namespace (make-empty-namespace)]) (parameterize ([current-eval (make-evaluator 'racket/base)]) (read-eval-print-loop)) (fprintf o "\nBye...\n") (close-output-port o)))
v : any/c (exn:fail:sandbox-terminated-reason exn) → symbol? exn : exn:fail:sandbox-terminated?
The sandboxed evaluators that make-evaluator creates can be customized via many parameters. Most of the configuration parameters affect newly created evaluators; changing them has no effect on already-running evaluators.
The default configuration options are set for a very restricted
sandboxed environment —
The sandbox environment uses two notions of restricting the time that evaluations takes: shallow time and deep time. Shallow time refers to the immediate execution of an expression. For example, a shallow time limit of five seconds would restrict (sleep 6) and other computations that take longer than five seconds. Deep time refers to the total execution of the expression and all threads and sub-processes that the expression creates. For example, a deep time limit of five seconds would restrict (thread (λ () (sleep 6))), which shallow time would not, as well as all expressions that shallow time would restrict. By default, most sandboxes only restrict shallow time to facilitate expressions that use threads.
(sandbox-reader proc) → void? proc : (any/c . -> . any)
(or/c #f string? bytes? input-port? 'pipe (-> input-port?)) (sandbox-input in) → void?
(or/c #f string? bytes? input-port? 'pipe (-> input-port?))
an input port;
the symbol 'pipe, which triggers the creation of a pipe, where put-input can return the output end of the pipe or write directly to it;
a thunk, which is called to obtain a port (e.g., using current-input-port means that the evaluator input is the same as the calling context’s input).
(or/c #f output-port? 'pipe 'bytes 'string (-> output-port?)) (sandbox-output in) → void?
(or/c #f output-port? 'pipe 'bytes 'string (-> output-port?))
an output port, which is used as-is;
the symbol 'bytes, which causes get-output to return the complete output as a byte string;
the symbol 'string, which is similar to 'bytes, but makes get-output produce a string;
the symbol 'pipe, which triggers the creation of a pipe, where get-output returns the input end of the pipe;
a thunk, which is called to obtain a port (e.g., using current-output-port means that the evaluator output is not diverted).
(or/c #f output-port? 'pipe 'bytes 'string (-> output-port?)) (sandbox-error-output in) → void?
(or/c #f output-port? 'pipe 'bytes 'string (-> output-port?))
(sandbox-coverage-enabled enabled?) → void? enabled? : any/c
(sandbox-propagate-breaks propagate?) → void? propagate? : any/c
(sandbox-propagate-exceptions propagate?) → void? propagate? : any/c
(cons/c (-> namespace?) (listof module-path?)) (sandbox-namespace-specs spec) → void?
(cons/c (-> namespace?) (listof module-path?))
The module paths are needed for sharing module instantiations between the sandbox and the caller. For example, sandbox code that returns posn values (from the lang/posn module) will not be recognized as such by your own code by default, since the sandbox will have its own instance of lang/posn and thus its own struct type for posns. To be able to use such values, include 'lang/posn in the list of module paths.
When testing code that uses a teaching language, the following piece of code can be helpful:
(sandbox-namespace-specs (let ([specs (sandbox-namespace-specs)]) `(,(car specs) ,@(cdr specs) lang/posn ,@(if (gui-available?) '(mrlib/cache-image-snip) '()))))
Various aspects of the library change when the GUI library is available, such as using a new eventspace for each evaluator.
(sandbox-override-collection-paths paths) → void? paths : (listof path-string?)
→ (or/c security-guard? (-> security-guard?)) (sandbox-security-guard guard) → void? guard : (or/c security-guard? (-> security-guard?))
The access mode symbol is one of: 'execute, 'write, 'delete, 'read, or 'exists. These symbols are in decreasing order: each implies access for the following modes too (e.g., 'read allows reading or checking for existence).
The path regexp is used to identify paths that are granted access. It can also be given as a path (or a string or a byte string), which is (made into a complete path, cleansed, simplified, and then) converted to a regexp that allows the path and sub-directories; e.g., "/foo/bar" applies to "/foo/bar/baz".
An additional mode symbol, 'read-bytecode, is not part of the
linear order of these modes. Specifying this mode is similar to
specifying 'read, but it is not implied by any other mode.
(For example, even if you specify 'write for a certain path,
you need to also specify 'read-bytecode to grant this
permission.) The sandbox usually works in the context of a lower code
inspector (see sandbox-make-code-inspector) which prevents
loading of untrusted bytecode files —
The default value is null, but when an evaluator is created, it is augmented by 'read-bytecode permissions that make it possible to use collection libraries (including sandbox-override-collection-paths). See make-evaluator for more information.
(symbol? (or/c (and/c string? immutable?) #f) (or/c (integer-in 1 65535) #f) (or/c 'server 'client) . -> . any) (sandbox-network-guard proc) → void?
(symbol? (or/c (and/c string? immutable?) #f) (or/c (integer-in 1 65535) #f) (or/c 'server 'client) . -> . any)
(sandbox-exit-handler handler) → void? handler : (any/c . -> . any)
(sandbox-memory-limit limit) → void? limit : (or/c (>=/c 0) #f)
Note that (when memory accounting is enabled) memory is attributed to the highest custodian that refers to it. This means that if you inspect a value that sandboxed evaluation returns outside of the sandbox, your own custodian will be charged for it. To ensure that it is charged back to the sandbox, you should remove references to such values when the code is done inspecting it.
(define e (make-evaluator 'racket/base)) (e '(define a 1)) (e '(for ([i (in-range 20)]) (set! a (cons (make-bytes 500000) a))))
When limits are set, call-with-limits (see below) is wrapped around each use of the evaluator, so consuming too much time or memory results in an exception. Change the limits of a running evaluator using set-eval-limits.
A custodian’s limit is checked only after a garbage collection, except that it may also be checked during certain large allocations that are individually larger than the custodian’s limit.
if a global limit is set but no per-evaluation limit, the sandbox will eventually be terminated and no further evaluations possible;
if there is a per-evaluation limit, but no global limit, the evaluation will abort with an error and it can be used again —
specifically, a will still hold a number of blocks, and you can evaluate the same expression again which will add more blocks to it;
if both limits are set, with the global one larger than the per-evaluation limit, then the evaluation will abort and you will be able to repeat it, but doing so several times will eventually terminate the sandbox (this will be indicated by the error message, and by the evaluator-alive? predicate).
(sandbox-run-submodules submod-syms) → void? submod-syms : (list/c symbol?)
(sandbox-make-inspector make) → void? make : (-> inspector?)
(sandbox-make-code-inspector make) → void? make : (-> inspector?)
The current-load/use-compiled handler is setup to allow loading of bytecode files under the original code inspector when sandbox-path-permissions allows it through a 'read-bytecode mode symbol, which makes loading libraries possible.
→ (-> environment-variables?) (sandbox-make-environment-variables make) → void? make : (-> environment-variables?)
The following functions are used to interact with a sandboxed evaluator in addition to using it to evaluate code.
(One use for this custodian is with current-memory-use, where the per-interaction sub-custodians will not be charged with the memory for the whole sandbox.)
evaluator : (any/c . -> . any) secs : (or/c exact-nonnegative-integer? #f) mb : (or/c exact-nonnegative-integer? #f)
This procedure should be used to modify an existing evaluator handler, because changing the sandbox-eval-handlers parameter does not affect existing evaluators. See also call-with-custodian-shutdown and call-with-killing-threads for two useful handlers that are provided.
if it was 'pipe, then get-output returns the input port end of the created pipe;
if it was 'bytes or 'string, then the result is the accumulated output, and the output port is reset so each call returns a different piece of the evaluator’s output (note that any allocations of such output are still subject to the sandbox memory limit);
otherwise, it returns #f.
The prog? argument specifies whether to obtain expressions that were uncovered after only the original input program was evaluated (#t) or after all later uses of the evaluator (#f). Using #t retrieves a list that is saved after the input program is evaluated, and before the evaluator is used, so the result is always the same.
A #t value of prog? is useful for testing student programs to find out whether a submission has sufficient test coverage built in. A #f value is useful for writing test suites for a program to ensure that your tests cover the whole code.
The second optional argument, src, specifies that the result should be filtered to hold only syntax objects whose source matches src. The default is the source that was used in the program code, if there was one. Note that 'program is used as the source value if the input program was given as S-expressions or as a string (and in these cases it will be the default for filtering). If given #f, the result is the unfiltered list of expressions.
The resulting list of syntax objects has at most one expression for each position and span. Thus, the contents may be unreliable, but the position information is reliable (i.e., it always indicates source code that would be painted red in DrRacket when coverage information is used).
Note that if the input program is a sequence of syntax values, either make sure that they have 'program as the source field, or use the src argument. Using a sequence of S-expressions (not syntax objects) for an input program leads to unreliable coverage results, since each expression may be assigned a single source location.
This process is usually similar to (evaluator (list thunk)), except that it does not rely on the common meaning of a sexpr-based syntax with list expressions as function application (which is not true in all languages). Note that this is more useful for meta-level operations such as namespace manipulation, it is not intended to be used as a safe-evaluation replacement (i.e., using the sandbox evaluator as usual).
(let ([guard (current-security-guard)]) (call-in-sandbox-context ev (lambda () (parameterize ([current-security-guard guard]) ; can access anything you want here (delete-file "/some/file")))))
secs : (or/c exact-nonnegative-integer? #f) mb : (or/c exact-nonnegative-integer? #f) thunk : (-> any)
Sandboxed evaluators use call-with-limits, according to the sandbox-eval-limits setting and uses of set-eval-limits: each expression evaluation is protected from timeouts and memory problems. Use call-with-limits directly only to limit a whole testing session, instead of each expression.
(with-limits sec-expr mb-expr body ...)
secs : exact-nonnegative-integer? thunk : (-> any)
(with-deep-time-limit secs-expr body ...)
v : any/c (exn:fail:resource-resource exn) → (or/c 'time 'memory 'deep-time) exn : exn:fail:resource?